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The age-specific propranolol to nonpropranolol-cohort HR of cancer was low in all age groups, and the effect was most significant in the age group ≧65 years (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55–0.79).In addition, the duration of propranolol use was associated with the reduced risk of cancer. The norepinephrine-driven metastasis development of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in BALB/c nude mice is inhibited by beta-blockers. Also, activation of β-ARs inhibits apoptosis mediated by Src tyrosine kinase, MAPK, and caspase cascades.PKA can phosphorylate β1 and β2-ARs, resulting in uncoupling and internalization. 2, Yuh-Der, Road, Taichung 404, Taiwan (e-mail: Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval, β-AR = β-adrenergic receptor, NHI = the National Health Insurance, HR = hazard ratio, ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, LHID2000 = the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, NHIRD = National Health Insurance Research Database.All authors have contributed to this manuscript, and all authors agree with the content of the manuscript.

Propranolol and breast cancer—a work in progress. These mechanisms of action suggest that propranolol may be of use in different cancer treatment settings – neo-adjuvant, perioperative and adjuvant. Stress hormones regulate a panel of important physiological functions and disease states including cancer.

Every day I ask myself: 'what else can propranolol offer to patients with unmet needs?'

Lemeshow S, Sørensen HT, Phillips G, et al.

Fryzek JP, Poulsen AH, Lipworth L, et al. Beta-blocker usage after malignant melanoma diagnosis and survival: a population-based nested case-control study. Predictors of cancer prevention attitudes and participation in cancer screening examinations.
Stress-related mediators stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by two ovarian cancer cell lines.

The paper also highlights the potential of propranolol to act on multiple points of the metastatic cascade - particularly in the peri-operative setting. Conception/Design: P-YC, W-YH, C-HK; Provision of study materials: C-HK; Data analysis and interpretation: P-YC, W-YH, C-LL, C-HK; Collection and/or assembly of data, Manuscript writing, Final approval of manuscript: All authors.This study was supported in part by the Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare Clinical Trial and Research Center of Excellence (MOHW104-TDU-B-212-113002); China Medical University Hospital, Academia Sinica Taiwan Biobank, Stroke Biosignature Project (BM104010092); NRPB Stroke Clinical Trial Consortium (MOST 103-2325-B-039 -006); Tseng-Lien Lin Foundation, Taichung, Taiwan; Taiwan Brain Disease Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan; Katsuzo and Kiyo Aoshima Memorial Funds, Japan; and Health, and welfare surcharge of tobacco products, China Medical University Hospital Cancer Research Center of Excellence (MOHW104-TDU-B-212-124-002, Taiwan).The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Your Name: (optional) Typically, propranolol is a type of drug that affects certain parts of the body’s nerve impulses.
Thaker PH, Han LY, Kamat AA, et al. A cohort study of antihypertensive medication use and breast cancer among Danish women. When stressed, the body makes a molecule that may prevent tumor cells from dying, and propranolol may affect the signals in cells that cause tumor cells survival and death.